Social Security Numbers (SSNs) and Individual Taxpayer ID Numbers (ITINs)
Social Security Number (SSN)
What is a Social Security Number (SSN)?
International students, scholars and employees will need to apply for a Social Security Number (SSN) if the are working in the US. The SSN is a nine-digit tax ID number issued by the Social Security Administration.
A SSN is not needed to apply for an on-campus job, but you must apply for a SSN as soon as possible, once you have a job offer or have started an on-campus job
You must be authorized to work in the US, and in some cases have an actual job, in order to apply for a SSN
The SSN is a lifetime, permanent number; if you received one in the past, you do not need to apply for a new number
A SSN is often requested by companies (e.g., banks, cell phone companies, rental agencies) for business purposes
You cannot apply for a SSN while outside of the US and more than 30 days prior to the start of your program or employment, whichever comes first
If you are an international student, scholar or employee, you can apply for a SSN only if you are inside the US in valid immigration status and you have been authorized to work in the US. The following are examples of who can apply for an SSN:
F-1 student who has an on-campus job, Curricular Practical Training (CPT) authorization, or an Employment Authorization Document (EAD) card for Optional Practical Training or other type of F-1 employment
J-1 student who has been authorized by the International Center for on-campus employment or Academic Training authorization
J-1 students sponsored by external J-1 sponsoring agencies should obtain authorization from their sponsor and not the International Center
J-1 research scholars, professors, and short-term scholars who are sponsored by a Tufts department
J-1 scholars sponsored by external J-1 sponsoring agencies should obtain authorization from their sponsor and not the International Center
Employees in H-1B, TN, or other type of employment-based immigration status
Dependents: F-2 dependent family members are not eligible to work and cannot apply for SSNs. Dependents in J-2 or H-4 status are eligible to work only if they have an Employment Authorization Document (EAD) card issued by USCIS. Dependents who do not have work authorization may be eligible to apply for an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN).
When To Apply
When To Apply
Newly Arrived F-1 Students or J-1 Students, Scholars, and Student Interns
Complete Confirmation of Arrival with International Center after arrival in US and wait at least 7-10 days*; and
Apply no earlier than 30 days before start of on-campus employment
Continuing F-1 Students, J-1 Students and Scholars
Apply up to 30 days before start of on-campus employment, curricular practical training, or other approved F-1 / J-1 employment
F-1 Students on Post-Completion Optional Practical Training
Apply for SSN when applying for Optional Practical Training, or
Apply upon receiving valid Employment Authorization Document (EAD) card, on or after EAD start date
Newly Arrived H-1B Employees
Apply after arrival in the US and on or after I-797 petition start date
*If you are a newly arrived F-1 student or J-1 student or scholar, you must first complete a confirmation of arrival with the International Center before you can apply for a SSN. This is because we must confirm your arrival in the US in the appropriate visa and activate your F-1 or J-1 SEVIS record. Once your SEVIS record is activated, we recommend that you wait at least five days before applying for an SSN, to allow Social Security's databases to be updated with your immigration information.
Once you have completed your arrival process, it is recommended that you apply for a SSN as soon as your eligibility has been established. You cannot apply for a SSN once you are within 15 days of completing your program and/or employment, or after you have left the US.
Application Steps (Updated 10/4/2022)
Application Steps (COVID-19 Procedures)
Step One: Prepare Your SSN Application Materials
To apply for a SSN, you must prepare several documents as listed below. Please review this information and follow instructions carefully.
NOTE: As of 5/13/2022, you can now complete the Form SS-5 application online but you must later go to a Social Security Office within 45 calendar days with all of the required documents on this list to complete the application process
Your visa certificate
Most recent Form I-20 for F-1 students
Most recent Form DS-2019 for J-1 Exchange Visitors
Form I-797 for H-1B temporary workers
Supporting documents - see the table below for your visa type and employment situation
If you are a J-1 student and your J-1 visa sponsor is another organization (e.g., IIE, AMIDEAST, LASPAU) you must obtain the required documents for SSN applications from your sponsor
J-2 Dependents with Employment Authorization Document (EAD) card
Valid, unexpired EAD card
Appointment letter from Tufts school or department
Optional: Job offer or appointment letter from Tufts with position, salary, and start / end dates of employment
*Note: J-1 students and scholars sponsored by an external organization such as Fulbright should get authorization letters from their sponsor, not the International Center.
Step Two: Go to a Social Security Office with your documents to apply for a SSN
Update (April 13, 2022): Many SSA offices have resumed walk-in services as of April 8, 2022. SSA still encourages applicants to call ahead to the SSA office serving your area (see below) to confirm the correct procedures, but recent reports indicate that the offices in Cambridge and Boston are now seeing individuals on a walk-in basis. Please note that in most locations only a limited number of people may be allowed into the office at a single time, and masking and social distancing rules are still in effect.
Social Security generally requires that you contact a SSA office that serves your residential area. To find the Social Security Administration office for your neighborhood, use the SSA Office locator. The most commonly-visited Social Security Administration offices for Tufts students include those indicated below:
When you submit your SSN application to the SSA office, ask for a receipt confirming your application. Provide a copy of the receipt to your department hiring manager. The SSN card should follow in the mail within 3-4 weeks after your application was received at the SSA office.
Receiving Your Card and SSN
When you apply for your SSN, ask for a receipt to show that you applied for your number. Social Security can take 3-4 weeks to process your application. Once they have processed your application, they will send you a Social Security card containing your SSN to your US mailing address.
For security, keep the card in a safe place upon receiving it - do not carry it with you on a daily basis and do not send your SSN through insecure means such as over emali.
Report your SSN to Tufts
Students: If you are working at Tufts, you must report your SSN to Tufts Support Services (TSS) or add your SSN to the Student Information System (SIS) yourself following these instructions. If you are also working in an on-campus job at Tufts, you will also need to submit your SSN directly to the I-9 verification system following the instructions on the Access Tufts SSN page or the I-9 Verification page.
Other Employees: Report your SSN information to your department or center where you are working. Your department manager will provide further instructions about updating your Social Security information with Tufts.
Individual Taxpayer ID Number (ITIN)
The Individual Taxpayer ID Number (ITIN) is similar in format to a SSN. However, it is a temporary tax ID number issued to persons who are NOT working but receiving US income through other sources ("non-compensatory" income). Examples of non-compensatory income include income from a scholarship or fellowship that covers expenses such as food and housing or other costs outside of required tuition and fees.
If you are receiving income through work (employment), do NOT apply for an ITIN - you must apply for a SSN instead.
Comparison: SSN versus ITN
Here are some of the major differences between a Social Security Number (SSN) and an Individual Taxpayer ID Number (ITIN).
SSN versus ITIN Comparison
Eligibility and Purpose
Students and scholars who have an on-campus job or US employment authorization must apply for SSNs prior to or soon after starting employment at Tufts.
Students and scholars who are not working but who have taxable US income (e.g., taxable scholarships or aid that do not require employment, prizes, stipends, etc.) may apply for ITINs
Duration of Validity
The SSN is a permanent, lifetime number.
The ITIN is a temporary number that can lose validity if not used; see the Internal Revenue Service's ITIN web site for more information. The ITIN loses validity if the student or scholar later qualifies for a SSN.
Issuing Government Agency
Social Security Administration (SSA)
Internal Revenue Service
Applying for an ITIN through the International Center
International Center ITIN Processing: The International Center can assist you with getting an ITIN if you are an F-1 or J-1 student with a US source scholarship, fellowship, grant, or allowance that does not require employment (work). Note: in general, you do not need to apply for a ITIN if your scholarship is applied directly to your required tuition and fees. However, if your scholarship is paid to you directly to help you cover your own personal expenses, then it is generally considered taxable income requiring a tax ID such as an ITIN.